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2.8 



AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL 



[Jan. 



CANALS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 
OPERATION. 
The following tabular statement will show 
tho t6tal number of miles of Canals in the 
United States — embracing rivers made navi- 
gable by locks and for purposes of navigation — 
in use on the first day of January, 1859 : 

Maine 60.50 

New Hampshire 2.13 

Vermont 1.06 

Massachusetts 6.60 

New York 1039.06 

New Jersey 148.70 

Pennsylvania 1349.00 

Delaware 13.50 

Maryland 191.00 

Virginia 188.98 

North Carolina 13.50 

South Carolina 52.50 

Georgia 28 00 

Lousiana 24.75 

Kentucky 48650 

Illinois 102.95 

Wisconsin 50 00 

Michigan 75 

Indiana 543 09 

Ohio 799.00 

Total 5068.33 

The cost of all the Canals is not well ascer- 
tained. It will not vary far from $175,000,000. 
Several of them perform most important func- 
tions both in the local and general trade of the 
country. They are among the most import- 
ant carriers of coal, while the Erie canal is the 
grand avenue for the internal trade of the 
country. 

There are a very large number of Canals in 
California, having an aggregate mileage of sev- 
eral thousands of miles, but these are exclus- 
ively used for mining purposes. 



RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES, 

COMPLETED AND PROOBESBIXO, 

With tlte cost of road and equipment to the end of 
the year 1858 : 

Total Length Cost of 

State, Ac. length, open. roads, Ac. 

Maine 631,4 554.9 819,345,567 

New Hampshire- •• ■ 594 8 560 5 19,087,556 

Vermont. 557.5 537.9 21,235,184 

Massachusetts 1430.9 1378.1 63,646,030 

Rhode Island 86 9 63.6 2,750,450 

Connecticut 609.5 654.4 25,098,678 

New Eng. States. 4161.0 3749.4 »151,163,435 



Total Length 
State, Ac. length, open. 

New York 3476.4 2695.3 

New Jersey. 645.6 653.6 

Pennsylvania 3736.5 2971.1 

Delaware. 119.6 91.7 

Maryland 873.8 792.3 

Mid. Atlantic States- 8850.9 7104.0 

Virginia 1776.7 1410.7 

North Carolina 836.1 760.1 

South Carolina 1077.8 7798 

Georgia 1554.0 1177.0 

Florida 730-5 198.3 

South Atlantic States. 5965.1 4325.9 

Alabama 1504.4 679.3 

Mississippi. 3719 246.6 

Louisiana 1039.0 393.0 

Texas 2229.0 205.5 

Gulf States 5144.3 1524.4 

Arkansas 701.3 38.5 

Missouri 1164.3 547.2 

Tennessee 1511.9 1035.1 

Kentucky 724.7 399.8 

South Interior States 4102.2 2320.6 

Ohio 4278.2 2988.1 

Michigan 1627.8 1032.0 

Indiana 16929 1290 9 

Illinois 3177.4 2714.4 

Wisconsin 2403.7 8222 

Iowa 1785.0 3438 

Minnesota 10580 

NorthInteriorStates.16023.0 9191.4 

California. 170.7 22.5 



Cost of 

roads, Ac. 

•135,314,197 

24.886,531 

140,510,271 

1,980,665 

46,116,555 

348,808,219 
42,670,674 
12,899,423 
18,431,550 
24,297,712 
4,676,000 

102,973,359 
19,972,038 

7,998,298 
14,297,801 
5,000,000 

47,268,137 

1,093,161 

30,871,360 
26,337,427 
13,314,059 

71,616,007 
124,821,055 
36,392,812 
31,055,603 
94,338,008 
36,742,063 
11,260,169 
500,000 

335,109,701 
1,547,100 



Total United States.44417.2 28238.2 1,068,485,958 



ACTUAL HILEAGE 

States, etc. Miles. 

Maine 486.2 

New Hampshire. • • 653 

Vermont 657.6 

Massachusetts. 1327.8 

Rhode Island 101.1 

Connecticut. 601.8 



N. England States- 
New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Mid. Atl'c. States.- 
Dist. of Columbia- 

Virginia 

North Carolina. •■ - 
South Carolina.- •• 

Georgia. 

Florida 



3727.5 

2726.2 

5536 

2678.1 

114.7 

453.8 



65274 
25 

1642.7 
693.1 
872.8 

1178.8 
198.3 



S.Atlantic States.- 4588.2 
Total, United States 



IN EACH STATE. 

States, etc. Miles. 

Alabama 581.8 

Mississippi 604.1 

Louisiana 2810 

Texas 205.5 



Gulf States. 16724 

Arkansas 38.5 

Missouri 547.2 

Tennessee : 875 8 

Kentucky 498.3 

S. Interior States- • • 1959.8 

Ohio. 2978.6 

Michigan. 777.0 

Indiana 19394 

Illinois 2774.4 

Wisconsin 837.2 

Iowa 343.8 

Minnesota 



N. Interior States- 9760.4 
California 22.5 



■ 28.238.2 



1859.] 



AND STATISTICAL SOCIETY. 



29 



RAILROADS AT QUINQUENNIAL TERIonS. 



States. 1829. '34. '39. '44. '49. 



'54. 



Maine ■ ■ • 
N. Hiirap'o • • 
Vermont. • • • 
Mass'ts-.. 3 
]t. Islund.. •• 
Connccti't. •• 



12 



144 
50 
36 



64 
3 

465 

50 

238 



'59. 



87 


407 


486 


134 


649 


653 


93 


616 


578 


948 


1,306 


1,328 


50 


50 


101 


326 


591 


602 



N.England 3 3 242 820 1,638 3,519 3,728 



New York • 
N.Jersey, 
l'ennsyl'a 
Delaware • 
Maryland. 
Dis of Co- 
lumbia. 



39 
.. 77 
25 318 
.. 16 



325 
124 
562 
16 
181 



722 
186 
893 
16 
254 



953 
195 
981 
16 
324 



Md'eStates 25 538 1,208 2,074 2,472 
Virginia.. • - 93 125 223 303 

N.Carolina 87 154 

S.Carolina •• 137 137 204 204 

Georgia 100 452 609 

Florida. 24 



S.Atl.Statea- 
Alabama. • 
Mississippi • 
Louisiana* • 
Texas 



230 362 966 1,324 
46 46 46 113 



40 40 



26 
40 



60 
66 



2,393 
411 

1,627 

49 

412 



4,895 

1,122 

403 

754 

971 

26 

3,276 
302 

159 

172 

32 



GulfStates •• 86 

Arkansas 

Missouri 

Tennessee • • 
Kentucky •• 15 



S.W.States ■ 

Ohio 

Indiana •• • 
Illinois- •• 
Michigan • 
Wisconsin • 
Iowa 



112 239 



25 28 



28 



665 

37 
317 
122 



15 25 



28 28 

84 274 

• • 86 

22 22 

206 270 



476 

2,394 

1482 

1,692 

627 

195 

37 



N.W.States- 
California-" 



312 652 6,307 



2,726 
554 

2,678 
114 
454 



6,530 

1,643 

693 

873 

1,179 

198 



6S2 
604 
281 
205 



1,672 

38 

547 
876 
498 

1,959 

2,978 

1,939 

2,774 

777 

837 

344 

9,750 
22 



U.States.-28 872 1,923 4,312 6,353 19,138 28,238 



ANNUAL MILEAGE OF RAILROADS. 



Yenrs. 

1828 • • 

1829 • • 

1830 ■• 

1831 - - 

1832 - - 

1833 - • 

1834 ■ • 

1835 • • 

1836 • ■ 

1837 • • 

1838 • • 

1839 • • 

1840 • ■ 

1841 • • 

1842 •• 

1843 ■• 



Miles. 

• 3 

• 28 

• 41 
■ 54 

• 131 
. 576 

• 872 
. 988 
. 1,102 

• 1,412 

• 1,843 

• 1,923 
•2,167 

• 3,319 

• 3,877 
■4,174 



Year. 

1844 

1845 • 

1846 

1847 • 

1848- 

1849. 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1843 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858. 



Miles. 

• •4,312 

• •4,670 

• 4,836 

• 5,282 

• 5,679 

• 6,353 

• 7,312 

• 9,090 

• 11,631 

• 13,379 
•19,138 

• 21,069 
23,761 

• 25,966 

• 28,238 



ANNUAL INCREASE OF MILEAGE. 



1829- 
1830- 
18J1- 
1832- 
1833- 
1834- 
1835- 
1836 ■ 
1837- 
1838. 
1839- 
1840- 
1841 • 
1842- 
1843- 



25 


1844 


13 


1845 


13 


1846 


77 


1647 


445 


1848 


296 


1649 


116 


1850- 


114 


1851 


310 


1852 


431 


1853 


80 


1854 


244 


1855 


1,142 


1856 


558 


1857 


297 


1R5R. 



Total. 



•• 138 

•• 368 

• • 160 

• • 446 

• • 397 
.. 674 

• • 959 

• • 1,778 

• -2,541 

• •1,748 

• •5,759 

• •1,931 

• •2692 

• •2,205 

• •2,272 

• 28,238 



METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

The following extracts are from the private 
journal of a lady of remarkably accurate habits 
and especially careful in her observations. 
They give the dates of the various indications 
of Spring, in consecutive series, for twenty 
years from 1823 to 1842. The observations 
were made in every instance upon the same 
plants growing in the same position, and under 
the same circumstances. They present an in- 
teresting illustration of the manner in which 
almost every one may, some way or another, 
advance the cause of science; and how, without 
scientific arrangement, a valuable amount of 
information can be extracted from the data ob- 
tained. The place of observation was upon the 
banks of the Passaic, New-Jersey, on tide 
water— lat. 40° 48' ; long. 74° 8' 

We have condensed the observations into 
into tabular form to show the way in which 
such observations can be best rendered of 
interest, and the deductions made most ap- 
parent. By reference to the table, it will be 
readily seen how much greater the variation 
from season to season is in the advent of the 
early harbingers of Spring, than in those that 
come later, there being a difference of forty- 
eight days in the appearance of frogs, while 
there is only sixteen days difference in the 
blooming of tulips. 

Notes of similar observations, showing the 
dates of first, and killing frosts, in the fall, 
would be of great interest.